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If humans went extinct today, Frank says, any future civilization that might arise on Earth millions of years hence might find it hard to recognize traces of human civilization. By the same token, if some earlier civilization existed on Earth millions of years ago, we might have trouble finding evidence of it.
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Any comparable cities from an earlier civilization would be easy for modern-day paleontologists to miss. And no one should count on finding a Jurassic iPhone; it wouldn't last millions of years, Gorilla Glass or no. Finding fossilized bones is a slightly better bet, but if another advanced species walked the Earth millions of years ago — if they walked — it would be easy to overlook their fossilized skeletons — if they had skeletons. Modern humans have been around for just , years, a thin sliver of time within the vast and spotty fossil record.
For these reasons, Frank and Gavin Schmidt, a climatologist at Goddard and the paper's co-author, focus on the possibility of finding chemical relics of an ancient terrestrial civilization.
The United States was then able to play a crucial role at the Paris Peace Conference of that shaped interwar Europe. Mexico was not part of the war, as the country was embroiled in the Mexican Revolution at the time. The s brought an age of great prosperity in the United States, and to a lesser degree Canada. But the Wall Street Crash of combined with drought ushered in a period of economic hardship in the United States and Canada. From to , there was a popular uprising against the anti-Catholic Mexican government of the time, set off specifically by the anti-clerical provisions of the Mexican Constitution of Once again, Canada found itself at war before its neighbors, however even Canadian contributions were slight before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
The entry of the United States into the war helped to tip the balance in favour of the allies. Two Mexican tankers, transporting oil to the United States, were attacked and sunk by the Germans in the Gulf of Mexico waters, in The incident happened in spite of Mexico's neutrality at that time. This led Mexico to enter the conflict with a declaration of war on the Axis nations.
History of the Americas
The destruction of Europe wrought by the war vaulted all North American countries to more important roles in world affairs, especially the United States, which emerged as a " superpower ". The early Cold War era saw the United States as the most powerful nation in a Western coalition of which Mexico and Canada were also a part.
Mexico experienced an era of huge economic growth after World War II, a heavy industrialization process and a growth of its middle class, a period known in Mexican history as "El Milagro Mexicano" the Mexican miracle. The Caribbean saw the beginnings of decolonization , while on the largest island the Cuban Revolution introduced Cold War rivalries into Latin America. The civil rights movement in the U.
However, the dominant New Deal coalition collapsed in the mid s in disputes over race and the Vietnam War , and the conservative movement began its rise to power, as the once dominant liberalism weakened and collapsed. Canada during this era was dominated by the leadership of Pierre Elliot Trudeau. In , at the end of his tenure, Canada enshrined a new constitution. Canada's Brian Mulroney not only ran on a similar platform but also favored closer trade ties with the United States.
Mexican presidents Miguel de la Madrid , in the early s and Carlos Salinas de Gortari in the late s, started implementing liberal economic strategies that were seen as a good move. However, Mexico experienced a strong economic recession in and the Mexican peso suffered a devaluation. In the United States president Ronald Reagan attempted to move the United States back towards a hard anti-communist line in foreign affairs, in what his supporters saw as an attempt to assert moral leadership compared to the Soviet Union in the world community.
Domestically, Reagan attempted to bring in a package of privatization and regulation to stimulate the economy.
Guide INVASION Earth 12, B.C. and still here!
The end of the Cold War and the beginning of the era of sustained economic expansion coincided during the s. Canada did not support the United States' later move to invade Iraq , however. In the U. By , political scientists were debating whether the election of Barack Obama in represented an end of the Reagan Era, or was only a reaction against the bubble economy of the s decade , which burst in and became the Lates recession with prolonged unemployment.
Despite the failure of a lasting political union, the concept of Central American reunification , though lacking enthusiasm from the leaders of the individual countries, rises from time to time. In — the region successfully established a military coalition to repel an invasion by United States adventurer William Walker. Today, all five nations fly flags that retain the old federal motif of two outer blue bands bounding an inner white stripe. Costa Rica, traditionally the least committed of the five to regional integration, modified its flag significantly in by darkening the blue and adding a double-wide inner red band, in honor of the French tricolor.
In , a Central American Court of Justice was created. Costa Rica, because of its relative economic prosperity and political stability, chose not to participate in the CACM. The goals for the CACM were to create greater political unification and success of import substitution industrialization policies. The project was an immediate economic success, but was abandoned after the " Football War " between El Salvador and Honduras.
A Central American Parliament has operated, as a purely advisory body, since Costa Rica has repeatedly declined invitations to join the regional parliament, which seats deputies from the four other former members of the Union, as well as from Panama and the Dominican Republic. In the s and s, the governments of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay were overthrown or displaced by U. Economically, they began a transition to neoliberal economic policies. They placed their own actions within the United States Cold War doctrine of "National Security" against internal subversion.
Revolutionary movements and right-wing military dictatorships have been common, but starting in the s a wave of democratization came through the continent, and democratic rule is widespread now. Allegations of corruption remain common, and several nations have seen crises which have forced the resignation of their presidents, although normal civilian succession has continued. International indebtedness became a notable problem, as most recently illustrated by Argentina 's default in the early 21st century. In recent years, South American governments have drifted to the left, with socialist leaders being elected in Chile, Bolivia , Brazil, Venezuela , and a leftist president in Argentina and Uruguay.
Despite the move to the left, South America is still largely capitalist. With the founding of the Union of South American Nations , South America has started down the road of economic integration, with plans for political integration in the European Union style. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Age of the human race Recorded history. Earliest records Protohistory Proto-writing.
Bronze age Iron age. Early antiquity Axial antiquity Late antiquity. Africa North America South America. Oceania East Asia South Asia. Southeast Asia West Asia. Africa Americas. Oceania East Asia. South Asia. Early modern Late modern. Modernity Futurology. Main article: Pre-Columbian era. Further information: Settlement of the Americas. Further information on Native American genetic heritage: Genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas.
See also: Indigenous peoples of the Americas and List of pre-Columbian cultures. Main article: Cahokia. Main article: Iroquois. Main article: Oasisamerica. Main article: Aridoamerica. Main article: Chichimeca. Main article: Mesoamerica.
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Main article: History of the Maya civilization. Main article: Pre-Columbian South America. See also: Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact.
Further information: European colonization of the Americas. Further information: Decolonization of the Americas. Main article: History of North America.
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Main article: History of Central America. See also: History of South America. History portal Latin America portal Indigenous peoples of the Americas portal. National Geographic Society. Archived from the original on Retrieved Smithsonian Institution Anthropology Outreach Office. Scientific American. American Antiquity.