Bowlen am Wahltag - Sozialkapital und Wahlbeteiligung in 94 europäischen Regionen (German Edition)

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Automated sentiment scoring offers relevant empirical information for many political science appl However, apart from English language resources, validated dictionaries are rare. This note introduces a German sentiment dictionary and assesses its performance against human intuition in parliamentary speeches, party manifestos and media coverage. The tool published with this note is indeed able to discriminate positive and negative political language.

But the validation exercises indicate that positive language is easier to detect than negative language, while the scores are numerically biased to zero. This warrants caution when interpreting sentiment scores as interval or even ratio scales in applied research. Undermining, defusing, or defending European integration? Assessing public communication of European executives in times of EU politicization.

European Journal of Political Research , How do mainstream political executives cue their politicized constituencies on European integrati Moving beyond static expectations that EU politicization induces executives to either undermine, defuse, or defend integration, we theorize executives' incentives under different configurations of public and partisan Euroscepticism in their home countries. We test our expectations on the sentiment and complexity that executives attach to European integration in almost 9, public speeches delivered throughout the Eurocrisis. We find that national leaders faced with a sceptical public opinion and low levels of partisan Euroscepticism rhetorically undermine integration, whereas European Commissioners faced with similar conditions are prone to defend it.

These responses intensify disproportionally with growing public Euroscepticism but are moderated by Eurosceptic party strength in surprising ways. When such challenger parties come closer to absorbing the Eurosceptic potential in public opinion, executive communication turns more positive again but also involves less clear rhetorical signals. These findings move us beyond existing uniform expectations on mainstream responses to Eurosceptic challenges and highlight the relevance of different domestic configurations of EU politicization.

The ParlSpeech data set: Annotated full-text vectors of 3. ParlSpeech contains full-text vectors of more than 3. Speeches are annotated with date, speaker and party. This release note provides a more detailed guide to the data. Debates about the EU's democratic legitimacy put national parliaments into the spotlight. Do they Do they enhance democratic accountability by offering visible debates and electoral choice about multilevel governance? To support such accountability, we argue, saliency of EU affairs in the plenary ought to be responsive to developments in EU governance, has to be linked to decision-making moments, and should feature a balance between government and opposition.

The recent literature discusses various partisan incentives that support or undermine these criteria, but analyses integrating these arguments are rare. We provide a novel comparative perspective by studying the patterns of public EU emphasis in more than 2. We document that parliamentary actors are by and large responsive to EU authority and its exercise where especially intergovernmental moments of decision-making spark plenary EU salience. But the salience of EU issues is mainly driven by government parties, decreases in election time and is negatively related to public Euroscepticism.

We conclude that national parliaments have only partially succeeded in enhancing EU accountability and suffer from an opposition deficit in particular. With the lingering Euro crisis, personalized competition for the Commission presidency, and a sur How does this changing context affect the supply side of party competition on European issues in EP election cam-paigns? This article compares the and EP elections in two EU founding members with high electoral support for radical left and radical right Euroscepticism—France and the Netherlands.

We study publically visible patterns of partisan mobilization in the written news media with semi-automated content analyses. The data indicate that visible party mobilization on EU issues was on average not significantly higher in While particularly mainstream and especially incumbent parties publically mobilize on European issues during both campaigns, the radical right's mobilization efforts have become more visible during the elections.

Examining the temporal dynamics within electoral campaigns, we show that the Eurosceptic fringes exhibit significant contagion effects on the mainstream parties, but that the extent of this contagion was surprisingly lower in the campaign. As a result, the increasing EU politiciza-tion between the and electoral contests has not resulted in an enhanced and more interactive supply of partisan debate about Europe. Communicating supranational governance? Christian Roland: Books

The salience of EU affairs in the German Bundestag, — Against democratic deficits of European Union EU governance, recent literature emphasizes the c Yet, arguments from the broader EU politicization literature have been only rarely applied to public parliamentary debates. This article integrates arguments about supranational authority and partisan competition as key drivers of debates on the EU and tests respective implications by an automated text analysis that retrieves EU references in all 1, plenary debates of the German Bundestag during — A panel analysis identifies authority transfers as the strongest predictor for EU salience in the plenary.

EU references furthermore increase with supranational policy output, public EU visibility, and a differentiating public opinion. With regard to partisan emphasis, mainstream and particularly governing parties push European issues in the German Bundestag.

Passwort vergessen?

There is no such thing as a free open sky: Financial markets and the struggle over European competences in international air transport. The core molecules often consist of dithienylcyclopentenes4 or difurylcyclopentenes5,6, coupled to metal electrodes through anchoring groups. The most prominent anchoring groups are thiol7, amino8 and pyridyl9. Although, this conformational change works well, they exhibit a poor over all conductance due to non-uniform binding geometries10, metal-molecule coupling disturbing the molecular orbitals, or decoupled electron systems.

Molecule-metal coupling was used in the application of fullerenes as anchor molecules. To elude the weak molecule-metal coupling, the anchoring molecule is bond covalently to the gold surface.


Here a short route towards the synthesis of a methylated bucky-ball is reported according to previous stated synthesis. Bromination provides the starting material for a second Wittig-Horner reaction with following photocyclization. The key step of the synthesis is the cove-region closure process CRC facilitated by regiospecific HF elimination, promoted through activated aluminium oxide. The final product exhibits the characteristic bowl-like shape. Different reaction conditions were applied for the key step in order to increase the yield and minimize the amount of side products.

Figure 1 Overview of the reaction cascade leading to the substituted bucky-bowl 9. The synthesis was started with 2- bromomethyl -1,4-difluorobenzene 1 and triphenyl phosphane to give the corresponding phosphonium salt. Mainly the E -isomere was formed due to the highly stabilized phosphonium salt. The stilbene was used for the next step without separation and then converted to the substituted benzo[c]phenanthrene 4 using the photocyclization method as described in the literature. Propylene oxide binds the resulting HI. Therefore different conditions were applied in order to accelerate the reaction and to improve the yield.

The fixed parameters were the benzo[c]phenanthrene derivate 1 eq and the amount of iodine 1. For propylene oxide a lot of different amounts used are stated in the literature. Bei Aktivierung durch einen endogenen oder exogenen Liganden wird eine Signalkaskade induziert, an deren erster Stelle das tri-mere G-Protein steht.

Synthesis of Methylated Bucky Bowls by HF elimination

Rural Mythology 2. When it comes to the most watched American television broadcast of the year, the annual Super Bowl is quite frequently at the forefront. However, not only the four quarters of actual play time are of major public interest, also the commercial breaks that serve as an informative as well as an entertaining interlude have become downright crowd-pleasers.

You could say that one gets watched and discussed the next day, while the other is talked about for years. To many viewers, the Super Bowl commercials have become an event in and of itself. It can be safely argued that this is, to a large degree, owed to the costly and extravagant production efforts, including big budgets of an average of four million U. It paints a romantic portrait of American farmers by showing compelling photographs of alleged contemporary farm life, rugged Midwesterners, and rural landscapes, as well as mostly men who are predominantly Caucasian tending to livestock, harvesting field crops and working the American heartland, all with the backing of their capable and dependable Ram trucks.

At the end of the commercial the viewer is presented a unifying slogan that rounds off the idealized portrait of present-day American rural life - "To the farmer in all of us". The goal of this paper will be, on the one hand, to point out what myths and promotional notions about American rural life the commercial works with and how the producers used them to create a seemingly harmless commercial whose sole aim is to paint a unified and praising picture of American farmers and the farm life depicted. On the other hand, there will also be shed light on facts that will contest the commercial's right to being called a romantic and unifying masterpiece of advertisement history, meaning the controversies and problems this commercial has been stirring up, making it offensive, ignorant, unproductive, and an actual problem itself, by disguising obvious problems in the rural sphere and blurring the need for solutions.

The question to be asked in this context is whether Ram irresponsibly avoided reality with the representation of rurality in its Super Bowl advertisement.

Beginn der Parlamentswahl in Indien: 900 Millionen dürfen wählen

This seminar paper will comprise three parts. First, in order to provide a basis for the upcoming analysis, there will be a theoretical part, containing general facts on myths and rurality, as well as two specifically addressed rural myths. After that, there will be an application part in which the afore-mentioned rural myths will be applied to Ram's 'Farmer' commercial.

Finally, there will be a chapter on the negative side of this advertisement, addressing some of the arisen controversies and problems. The two-part nature of the commercial's content, that is to say, its photographic material, as well as the audio material in form of Paul Harvey's speech, provides fertile ground for an analysis in the context of American rural studies.

In order to approach this multi-faceted subject of rural myths, and in order to be able to eventually conduct an analysis in the course of this paper, a theoretical foundation has to be established. This chapter's purpose is to discuss the terms 'rurality' and 'myth', as well as their function, and to give an overview of these terms on a general level. First of all, the term 'rurality' has to be defined. However, this has so far been quite a difficult challenge among various scholars of rural studies. For the purpose of this seminar paper, it should suffice to give a broad overview of some key notions when it comes to defining the rural, as well as to set the perimeters for the questions, issues and controversies regarding Ram's 'Farmer' commercial.

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In this respect, some vital approaches and definitions can be drawn from Paul Cloke, professor of geography.